In recent years, I've become a huge fan of the writings of the late W.G. Sebald. Not that I always understand what's going on in them, you understand. Sebald blends fiction, biography, memoir, and a bunch of other genres in a prose style which is frankly breathtaking. Although he lived in Norfolk, and had a command of English better than most, Sebald wrote in his native German, working closely with the translators of the English editions of his books.
Such a Sebald-groupie have I become, that I thought it was about time I read some of his poetry. I'm not very good with poetry. I don't get most of it. But I thought I'd give it a shot, and have just finished reading Sebald's Across the Land and the Water: Selected Poems, 1964--2001.
What can I say? I found Sebald's poetry utterly incomprehensible. I'm sure it's fantastic, but, as I read it, I stared open-mouthed at each page, wondering, ‘What on Earth is he on about?”
Why am I telling you all this on a blog which is supposed to be dedicated to the history of science in general, and Charles Darwin in particular? Well, because one of Sebald's poems, Barometer Reading, begins as follows:
Nothing can be inferred
from the forecasts
are ignoring their ladders
Do you see what I mean? What on Earth is he on about?
At the end of the book, Sebald's translator, Iain Galbraith, includes some brief notes about the poems. A note about Barometer Reading, reads:
ignoring their ladders: weather-frogs (tree-frogs) were kept in preserve glasses with some water in the bottom and a small ladder. If the weather was changing for the better the frog would climb the ladder; if rain was imminent the frog descended the ladder.
Weather-forecasting frogs. Now that's more like it!
I've done a bit of Googling, but haven't been able to find out an awful lot about these weather-forecasting frogs. From what I can tell, they seem to have been mainly a German/Swiss phenomenon. Sebald was brought up in the Bavarian Alps, near to the Swiss border, so that's almost certainly where he heard about them.
I did, however, discover one wonderful etching on Wikimedia from page 385 of the journal Die Gartenlaube, 1887 (it's worth clicking through to the full-sized version):
A few things I haven't been able to establish:
- who first thought up the idea for these weather-frogs?
- were they a serious attempt to forecast the weather, or where they just a bit of harmless fun?
- did they actually work?
Any information gratefully received in the comments, thanks.
Hmmm, thinks... I'll bet Thony C knows something.
I know that I'm all knowing but in this case I'm just as ignorant as you. However a consultation of the German Wikipedia revealed the following information. It seems that this myth is based on the behaviour of the European tree frog (Hyla arborea), which climbs higher up plants during sunny weather in order to catch flying insects that fly higher when it's warm.
In the 18th and 19th centuries they were apparently kept in glass jars with ladders because it was thought that they would climb the ladders by approaching warm weather. In Germany weather forecasters are, as a result, known as Wetterfrösche (weather frogs).
Interestingly the English Wikipedia says that the European tree frogs were earlier kept as barometers because they respond to rain by croaking.
I've just realised... Barometers measure pressure, right? And the S.I. unit of pressure is the Pascal, right? And Blaise Pascal was a Frog, right?
It's all beginning to make sense!
In German the tree frog is called the Laubfrosch which translates as leaf frog. An expression in German for being totally drunk is "platt als ein Laubfrosch" which translates as flat as a leaf frog.
An advertisement in The Coffee Public-House News and Temperance Hotel Journal No. 115 (1st December 1886) reads-:
'PAUL'S WEATHER PROPHETS.
'Says Land and Water of October 10th, are simply natural living Barometers. Inside a glass case is an Italian green frog (hyla arborea), which, obeying the instincts of its nature, remains concealed in the glass when the weather is damp; but, so soon as a more favourable change is imminent, climbs up a little ladder which is provided, rising the higher as the weather improves. We have placed the object in the window in order that our readers may verify the statements by ocular demonstrations. Complete 10s.
'100 Gold Fish 30s., or 6d. each.
'Patent Fish Kettle, 1s. extra; Plants, Snails, Shingle, free - sent to any part of the Kingdom.
'PAUL'S AQUARIA MANAGEMENT.
'Without changing the Water. Description of Fish, Plants, Snails, &c., 1s. post paid.
'PAUL'S FISH LIFE PRESERVER.
'Prepared Fish Food invigorates the Fish, makes them grow, keeps them healthy, full of fire and go. One packet 1s. post paid. Will last three months.
'PAUL'S "FISH CULTURE,"
'A monthly Illustrated Journal, published to raise the neglected state of Fish Culture to its earlier standard, to re-populate the rivers, ponds, lakes, &c. Every farmer, land or water owner, should study aqua-culture. This journal gives valuable information how £400 per year may be made out of one acre of water. 6d. each.
'PAUL'S FISH CULTURE, 177, Euston Road, London, N.W.
'Trade Catalogue of the World's Fishes, Reptiles, Amphibies, Press Opinions, &c., Stamp.
The address on Euston Road appears to belong to Friends House now.
Thanks for that. Very interesting!
When I was a kid my parents used to tell me that the weather forecast was done with the help of frogs, exactly how you describe (actually I found this article because I was wondering if there was any historical/scientific facta behind this idea). Btw. I am a frog myself.
I just finished reading a Czech story (as far as I know never translated into English) by Jaroslav Hašek, creator of The Good Soldier Švejk, called "The Confused Tree Frog." I was confused at first by all the references to jars and ladders, but now I see... Anyway, the practice had obviously spread to the Czech Lands, long a part of Austria, by the early 20th century. And the Czech word "rosnička" ("tree frog," grammatically feminine) can also refer to a female TV weather forecaster, perhaps a bit sexist.
Schneider, J.G. 1799. Historiae Amphibiorum naturalis et literariae. Fasciculus primus continens Ranas, Calamitas, Bufones, Salamandras et Hydros in genera et species descriptos notisque suis distinctos. Ienae. Frederici Frommanni. xiii + 264 p. + 2 lám.
Referring to Calamita arboreus (= Hyla arbórea), Schneider, in p. 153, wrote:
"...The reproduction is performed after that of the Rana temporaria, among bushes close to standing water, with males screaming loudly; farmers hear this song to the distance in early spring, and if they hear it before the day of [St.] George , presages a bad year in crops...."
This is a well known piece of folklore in Eastern Europe. (Hungary). I've tried it with my wife, but its always wrong.
I arrived here while looking for an english term for this phenomenon, but I discovered it thanks the books of David the Gnome which had a housemade barometer designed in the likeness of an anuran climbing a tree ( https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_World_of_David_the_Gnome )
climbing a ladder, not a tree, climbing a ladder
Pacific chorus frog (Pseudacris regilla) males call several hours before rain, and much too often to be a coincidence. This year their behaviour suggested something longer term: no egg masses or tadpoles were recorded in any of my smaller ponds which usually have plenty. They dried up abnormally early this year, early July. Meanwhile, the larger and permanent forest pond is stuffed with tadpoles. Did they know this summer would be abnormally warm and dry here in British Columbia?